Meredith Carroll

Professor | College of Aeronautics

Director | ATLAS Lab - Advancing Technology-interaction and Learning in Aviation Systems

Contact Information

Personal Overview

Dr. Meredith Carroll is a Professor of Aviation Human Factors and Director of the Advancing Technology-interaction and Learning in Aviation Systems (ATLAS) Lab at Florida Institute of Technology’s College of Aeronautics. She has nearly 20 years of experience studying human/team performance and training in complex systems. Her research focuses on decision making in complex systems, cognition and learning, human-machine teaming, performance assessment and adaptive training.  She has been funded by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), the Office of Naval Research (ONR), and the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) to study different facets of these areas. She also worked at the Kennedy Space Center conducting user-centered design of International Space Station payloads, processing facilities and ground support equipment. She teaches a range of human factors courses aimed at giving students practical, hands-on experience in applying theories of cognition and learning to optimize performance in a range of situations from aviation to defense.

Some of her recent research projects include research currently funded by AFOSR to study trust in heterogeneous, multi-level human-agent teams, including interventions to ensure proper calibration of human trust in agents/autonomous systems and strategies to repair trust after a trust violation.   She is also currently funded by ONR to examine instructional strategies to engage and educate under represented minorities (women and minorities) in the field of cybersecurity, including development of a pilot training program for local high schools.  She is also conducting research in the field of Urban/AdvancedAir Mobility (U/AAM), examining human factors considerations for pilot operations of emerging vehicle and operational concepts.  She was also recently funded by the FAA to study pilot decision making on the flight deck, including how to effectively integrate information from multiple sources and  support pilots in making effective decisions when faced with information with varying levels of integrity, reliability and security.  

Educational Background

Ph.D. Applied Experimental/Human Factors Psychology, University of Central Florida, 2010
M.S. Aviation Science, Florida Institute of Technology, 2003
B.S. Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, 2001

Professional Experience

Senior Research Associate, Design Interactive, Inc. Orlando, FL (2005-2015): Served as Principal Investigator for the following research and development efforts:

  • Studied tactical decision making under stress and individual resilience to stress; developed models, measures and training techniques for improving resilience of decision making skills under stress (ONR Funded)
  • Developed and conducted empirical evaluation of a performance assessment and debrief system that integrated eye tracking technology to assess pilot scan strategies and cognitive state for Next Gen tactical aviation training (AFRL funded)
  • Evaluated low cost physiological sensors for integration into training tools to assess cognitive and affective states (ARL Funded)
  • Developed and evaluated tools for measuring training effectiveness and Return on Training Investment (ONR, AFRL Funded)
  • Developed trainee modeling techniques utilizing affective sate, cognitive states and behavioral performance (ONR Funded)
  • Designed and empirical evaluated eye tracking measures and virtual training tools to assess and remediate perceptual skills including visual search, detection and recognition (ONR Funded)
  • Designed and evaluated multiple virtual training environments, including conduct of task analysis, requirements analysis, and training effectiveness evaluation for several military domains.
  • Conducted user-centered design and usability evaluation of a variety and training and operational systems in the military and aviation domains.

Adjunct Professor, FIT, College of Aeronautics (2012-2014)
Courses: Human Computer Interaction

Human Factors Design Specialist, The Boeing Company, Kennedy Space Center, FL (2003- 2005)

  • Performed human factors analysis and design of International Space Station (ISS) payloads, support equipment, facilities, work tasks
  • Conducted incident investigation and root causes analysis of incidents related to ISS flight hardware, support equipment, facilities
  • Performed human factors requirements verification of ISS payloads
  • Conducted usability testing in support of NASA's Human Factors Integrated Toolkit

Additional Duties

Director, Advancing Technology-interaction & Learning in Aviation Systems (ATLAS) Lab

Chair, Florida Tech Research Council

Co-Chair, Florida Tech Women's Council, Professional Development Subcomittee

Member, Florida Tech University Teaching Track Promotion Board

Member, College of Aeronautics Graduate Program Committee

Member, College of Aeronautics Doctoral Comprehensive Examination Committee

Member, College of Aeronautics Undergraduate Curriculum Committee

Advisor, Florida Tech Drone Club

Board Member, Florida Tech Catholic Campus Ministry

Current Courses

Introduction to Human Factors

Human Machine Systems

Human Factors in Man Machine Systems

Human Computer Interaction

Interaction Design and Usability

The Urban Air Mobility Ecosystem

Selected Publications

Farelo, D.G., Bracaglia, L., Dailey, P., Tamrakar, S., Palladino, A., Carroll, M., & Valenti, A. (2022, April 3-7). An Adaptive Learning Model for Predicting and Analyzing Student Performance on Flight Training Tasks [Paper presentation]. SPIE Defense + Commercial Sensing 2022, Orlando, Florida.

Carroll, M., & Malmsquist, S. (2021).  Resilient performance in aviation.  In C. Nemeth & E. Hollnagel (Eds.) Advancing Resilient Performance. Springer Nature.

Carroll, M. & Sanchez, P.  (2021).  An examination of pilot-reported trust and response to information conflicts experienced on the flight deck.  Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors, 11:2, 79-87.

Carroll M., & Dahlstrom, N. (2021) Human computer interaction on the modern flight deck, International Journal of Human Computer Interaction, 37:7, 585-587, DOI: 10.1080/10447318.2021.1890495

Carroll, M., Rebensky, S., Wilt, D. F., Pittorie, W., Hunt, L., Chaparro, M., & Sanchez, P. (2021).  Integrating uncertified information from the electronic flight bag into the aircraft panel: impacts on pilot response.  International Journal of Human Computer Interaction, 37: 7, 630-641.

Carroll, M., Chaparro, M., Rebensky, S., Carmody, K., Mehta, R., & Pittorie, W., (2021). Adapting to the times: Examining adaptive instructional strategies in preferred and non-preferred class types. Human Computer Interaction International 2021.

Rebensky, S., Carroll, M., Bennett, W. & Hu, X. (2021) Impact of heads-up displays on small unmanned aircraft system operator situation awareness and performance: A simulated study. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, DOI: 10.1080/10447318.2021.1948683 

Rebensky, S., Carmody, K., Ficke, C., Nguyen, D., Carroll, M., Wildman, J., & Thayer, A. (2021). Whoops! Something went wrong: Errors, trust, and trust repair strategies in human agent teaming. Human Computer Interaction International 2021.

Rebensky, S., Carroll, M., Nakushian, A., Chaparro, M., & Prior, T. (2021). Understanding the last line of defense: Human response to cybersecurity events. Human Computer Interaction International 2021.

Chaparro M., & Carroll M. (2021). Examining vigilance in a simulated unmanned aircraft system (UAS) monitoring task. Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2021).

Carroll, M. & Sanchez, P.  (2020).  Decision making with conflicting information: Influencing factors and best practice guidelines.  Theoretical Issues in Ergonomic Science.

Carroll, M. , Ruble, M. , Dranias, M. , Rebensky, S. , Chaparro, M. , Chiang, J. and Winslow, B. (2020). Automatic detection of learner engagement using machine learning and wearable sensors. Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science10, 165-178. doi: 10.4236/jbbs.2020.103010.

Carstens, D. S., Pittorie, W. P., Carroll, M. B., & Sanchez, P. L. (2020). Review of aviation safety databases to identify information discrepancies experienced on the flight deck: Implications for NextGen. Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors, 10(2), 94–102. 

Chaparro, M.E., Carroll, M. & Malmquist, S. (2020). Personality Trends in the Pilot Population. Collegiate Aviation Review International, 38(2),  Retrieved from

Rebensky, S., Carroll, M., Bennett, W., & Hu, X. (2020). Collaborative development of a synthetic task environment by academia and military. Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) 2020.

Ebnali, M., Bailey, S., Ciccone, B., Wilson, R., Rebensky, S., Carroll, M., Bennett, W., Hu, X., Reiner, A., Vasquez, H., Wooldridge, A., Lee, L., Verma, P., Jeong, H., Gisick, L., French., Keebler, J. (2020). Virtual reality, augmented reality, and virtual environments: Demonstrations of current technologies and future directions. HFES 2020.

Rebensky, S., Chaparro, M., & Carroll, M. (2020). Optimizing the learning experience:  Examining interactions between the individual learner and the learning context. In: Nazir S., Ahram T., Karwowski W. (eds) Advances in Human Factors in Training, Education, and Learning Sciences. AHFE 2020. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 1211. Springer, Cham

Carroll, M., Sanchez, P., Wilt, D., & Rebensky, S. (2020). Utilizing Simulation to Train Decision Making with Conflicting Information. In: Cassenti D., Scataglini S., Rajulu S., Wright J. (eds) Advances in Simulation and Digital Human Modeling. AHFE 2020. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 1206. Springer, Cham.

Chaparro, M., Carroll, M., & Hook, J. (2020).  Improving the Usability of a Digital Neurobehavioral Assessment. In: Ahram T., Falcão C. (eds) Advances in Usability, User Experience, Wearable and Assistive Technology. AHFE 2020. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 1217. Springer, Cham.

Carroll, M., Lindsey, S., Chaparro, M., & Winslow, B. (2019).  An applied model of learner engagement and strategies for increasing learner engagement in the modern educational environment.  Interactive Learning Environments, DOI: 10.1080/10494820.2019.1636083.

Carroll, M., Wilt, D.F., Sanchez, P., & Carstens, D. (2019).  Examining pilot decision making in information-rich cockpits.  Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium of Aviation Psychology.  May 7-10, Dayton, OH, 73-78.

Pittorie, W., Carroll, M., & Carstens, D. (2019).  Effects of Verbal vs Graphical Weather Information on a Pilot’s Decision Making during Preflight.  Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium of Aviation Psychology.  May 7-10, Dayton, OH, 349-354.

Lindsey, S., Ganey, H.C. N., & Carroll, M. (2019). Designing military cockpits to support a broad range of personnel body sizes. Proceedings of The 20th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology. 

Pitorrie, W., Lindsey, S., Wilt, D.F., & Carroll, M. (2019).  Low-Cost Simulator for Flight Crew Human-Factors Studies.  Proceedings of the AIAA Aviation and Aeronautics Forum and Exposition. June 17-21, Dallas, Texas.

Carroll M., Lindsey S., Chaparro M. (2019) Integrating Engagement Inducing Interventions into Traditional, Virtual and Embedded Learning Environments. In: Sottilare R., Schwarz J. (eds) Adaptive Instructional Systems. HCII 2019. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 11597. Springer, Cham.   DOI:

Sanchez P.L., Carroll M.B. (2019) Optimization of User Interfaces in the Digitization of Paper-Based Processes: A Case Study of a Mobile Aviation Application. In: Marcus A., Wang W. (eds) Design, User Experience, and Usability. Practice and Case Studies. HCII 2019. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 11586. Springer, Cham. DOI:

Lindsey S., Carroll M., Carstens D. (2019) Evaluation of the Impact of Mobile VR Interaction Methods on Performance, Preference, and Enjoyment. In: Stephanidis C. (eds) HCI International 2019 - Posters. HCII 2019. Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol 1033. Springer, Cham.  DOI:

Carroll, M. and Winslow, B. (2017) Examination of the Impact of Condensed Biofeedback Training on Acute Stress Responses. Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, 7, 287-303.

Champney, R. K., Stanney, K. M., Milham, L., and Carroll, M.B. (2017) An examination of virtual environment training fidelity on training effectiveness, International Journal of Learning Technology, 12 (1), pp.42–65.

Lindsey, S., Carstens, D.S. & Carroll, M. (2017). Presence Level of Low Cost Controllers for Mobile Based Virtual Reality Headsets, The Journal of Management & Engineering Integration, 10(1), 59-63.

Padron, C., Champney, R., and Carroll, M. (2016). Quantifying return on simulation-based training investment Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Carroll, M., Padron, C., Quinn, S., Surpris, G., Winslow, B., and Viklund, E. (2015). Effectiveness of process level feedback at training tactical decision making. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Carroll, M., Surpris, G., Sidor, G., and Bennett, Winston. (2015). Evaluation of an eye tracking-based assessment and debrief tool for training next generation multirole tactical aviation skills. Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, Dayton, OH.

Winslow, B. D., Carroll, M.B., Martin, J.W., Surpris, G. & Chadderdon, G.L. (2015). Identification of resilient individuals and those at risk for performance deficits under stress. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 9(328), pp. 1-10.

Carroll, M., Winslow, B., Padron, C., Surpris, G., Murphy, J., Wong, J. and Squire, P. (2014). Inducing stress in warfighters during simulation-based training. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Champney, R.K., Carroll, M., Surpris, G. (2014). A Human Experience Approach to Optimizing Simulator Fidelity. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 58th Annual Meeting. Chicago, Illinois, October 27-31.

Carroll, M. B., Padron, C. K., DeVore, L. A., Winslow, B., Hannigan, F. P., Murphy, J. S., and Squire, P. (2013). Simulation Training Approach for Small Unit Decision-making Under Stress. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Carroll, M., Kokini, C. and Moss, J. (2013) ‘Training effectiveness of eye tracking-based feedback at improving visual search skills, International Journal of Learning Technology, 8(2), pp.147–168.

Winslow, B., Carroll, M., Jones, D., Hannigan, F., Hale, K., Stanney, K., & Squire, P. (2013) Quantifying resilience to enhance individualized training. Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. July 20-26, Las Vegas, NV.

Carroll, M., Strally, S., Surpris, G., Archer, M., & Bennett, W. (2013). Enhancing HMD-based Joint Strike Fighter Training through integration of Eye tracking and EEG Technology. Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. July 20-26, Las Vegas, NV.

Stanney, K., Kokini, C., Ramirez-Padron, R., Carroll, M., Fuchs, S., Jones, D., & Hale, K. (2012). Development and Validation of a Real-Time Approach for Modeling Cognitive Readiness. Presented at the International Summit on Human Simulation (ISHS) 2012, St. Pete Beach, FL (May 23-25).

Carroll, M., Hale, K., Stanney, K., Woodman, M., DeVore, L., Squire, P. & Sciarini, L. (2012). Framework for training adaptable and stress-resilient decision making. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Kokini, C., Carroll, M., Ramierez-Pardon, R., Wang, X., Hale, K., Sottilare, R. & Goldberg, B. (2012). Quantification of trainee affective and cognitive state in real-time. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Carroll, M., Stanney, K., Kokini, C., & Hale, K. (2012). Given the state, what’s the metric? Proceedings of the 4th Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE) International Conference 2012. July 21-25, San Francisco, CA.

Carroll, M., Kokini, C., Champney, R., Fuchs, S., Sottilare, R., & Goldberg, B. (2011). Modeling trainee affective and cognitive state using low cost sensors. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Carroll, M., Fuchs, S., Hale, K., Dargue, B. & Buck, B. (2010). Advanced training evaluation system: Leveraging Neuro-physiological measurement to individualize training. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Carroll, M., Fuchs, S., Carpenter, A., Hale, K., Abbott, R.G., & Bolton, A. (2010).  Development of an Autodiagnostic Adaptive Precision Trainer for Decision Making (ADAPT-DM).  International Test and Evaluation Journal, 31(2), 247-263.

Carroll, M., Milham, L.,& Champney, R. (2009). Military observation: Perceptual skills training strategies. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Hale, K., Stanney, K., Milham, L., Carroll, M.B. & Jones, D. (2009). Multimodal sensory information requirements for enhancing situation awareness and training effectiveness. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science (TIES): Special Issue: Optimizing Virtual Training Systems.

Champney, R.K., Carroll, M.B., Milham, L., & Hale, K. (2008). Sensory-perceptual objective task (SPOT) taxonomy: A task analysis tool. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Conference 52nd Annual Meeting. New Your, NY.

Carroll, M.B., Champney, R.K., Milham, L.M., Jones, D.L., Chang, D., & Martin, G. (2008). Development of an instructor aid to diagnose performance. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Dean, S,. Milham, L., Carroll, M., Schaeffer, R., Alker, M., & Buscemi, T. (2008). Challenges of scenario design in a mixed-reality environment. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.

Deaton, J. E., Bell, B., Fowlkes, J., Bowers, C., Jentsch, F., Bell, M. A. (2007). Enhancing team training and performance With automated performance assessment tools. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 17 (4), 317-331.

Schaffer, R., Cohn, J., Hoover, A., Fouad, H., Martin, G., Milham, L., & Carroll, M. (2006). A system for Evaluating Training Transfer between Virtual and Live Urban Environments. Proceedings of the Huntsville Simulation Conference, October 2006, The Society for Modeling and Simulation International.

Champney, R., Milham, L., Carroll, M.B., Stanney, K.M., Cohn, J. (2006). A method to determine optimal simulator training time: Examining performance improvement across the learning curve. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Conference (50th Annual), San Francisco, CA.

Bell, M., Facci, E., Nayeem, R.V. (2005). Cognitive Tunneling, Aircraft-Pilot Coupling Design Issues and Scenario Interpretation Under Stress in Recent Airline Accidents. International Symposium of Aviation Psychology (13th Annual), Oklahoma City, OK.

Facci, E., Bell, M., & Nayeem, R.V. (2005). The Effect of Social Proof on Weather-Related Decision-Making in Aviation. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Conference (49th Annual), Orlando, FL.


Dr. Carroll is currently funded by AFOSR, in collaboration with Florida Tech's Institute for Culture, Collaboration, and Management (ICCM), to develop a Multilevel Framework of Trust Dynamics in Human-Agent Teams (HATs) and associated unobtrusive measures of trust. The first year of the effort focuses on a review of recent literature in the field and conceptualization of the theoretical framework that will be validated in later experimentation, including experiments designed to validate aspects of the model such as the influence of different types of trust violations and repair strategies in teams, and how various compilational patterns of these events across teammates impacts trust. Experimentation will utilize multiple experimental testbeds, including the Multi-UAV Simulator for Teaming Research and Evaluation of Autonomous Missions (STREAM), a testbed for multi-UAV operations developed in collaboration with the AFRL's Gaming Research Integration for Learning Laboratory (GRILL), that simulates multiple autonomous UAVs with decision making capabilities in ISR missions. The outcomes of this project will help inform the design, implementation and training of HAT agents and human teammates resulting in improved team dynamics, and increased team performance and mission

Dr. Carroll, in collaboration with Florida Tech's Cybersecurity department,  is also currently funded by ONR to examine educational approaches to engage and educate a more diverse cybersecurity workforce.  The effort is utilizing a multi-disciplinary approach and team to develop, implement, and evaluate an exploratory pilot project: an introductory cybersecurity training course for upper-level high school and college students with impactful STEM educational experiences.  The course will integrate instructional strategies shown efficacious for cybersecurity education and effective in targeting underrepresented minorities.  The outcome of this effort will be educational approaches and a pilot-program curriculum for an introductory-level cybersecurity course, empirically validated to increase learning outcomes, learner engagement, self-efficacy, interest and intent to pursue a career in cybersecurity, for underrepresented minorities.

She was also recently funded by the FAA to examine Human Factors considerations associated with integrating information from multiple sources on the flight deck. As new technology, such as Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) applications, becomes available on the flight deck, pilots have the opportunity to access, and make decisions based on, greater amounts of data from a range of different sources. Through theoretical and empirical study, this effort examined what information is being utilized on the flight deck, how this information is being integrated, and the implications for pilot decision making. The project included review of the relevant literature and safety/accident reports, survey and interview of pilots across general aviation and air transport domains, and conduct of a simulation study with commercial airline pilots to examine their response to different flight deck display configurations.

Research & Project Interests

Cognition and learning, tools and techniques related to:

  • Decision Making
  • Stress and Resilience
  • Learner Engagement
  • Human Machine Teaming
  • Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)
  • Urban Air Mobility (UAM)
  • Cognitive and Affective State
  • Individual differences
  • Behavioral and Physiological Assessment
  • Adaptive Training
  • Return on Training Investment/Training Fidelity Analysis
  • Cybersecurity