Dr. Meredith Carroll is a Professor of Aviation Human Factors at Florida Institute of Technology’s College of Aeronautics. She has nearly 20 years of experience studying human/team performance and training in complex systems. Her research focuses on decision making in complex systems, cognition and learning, performance assessment and adaptive training, including utilizing physiological sensor technology to gain access to previously unobservable aspects of performance and learning. She has been funded by the the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), the Office of Naval Research (ONR), and the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) to study different facets of these areas. She also worked at the Kennedy Space Center conducting user-centered design of International Space Station payloads, processing facilities and ground support equipment. She teaches a range of human factors courses aimed at giving students practical, hands-on experience in applying theories of cognition and learning to optimize performance in a range of situations from aviation to defense.
Some of her recent research projects include research currently funded by ONR to examine the human factors considerations of cybersecurity for Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices, including how user's perceived susceptability, knowledge and experiences impact technology interaction. She is also currently funded by AFRL to examine learner engagement associated with Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) training and higher education learning environments, including the identification of physiological measures to quantify real-time learner engagement and interventions to increase learner engagement. She was also recently funded by the FAA to study pilot decision making on the flight deck, including how to effectively integrate information from multiple sources and support pilots in making effective decisions when faced with information with varying levels of integrity, reliability and security. Her research also studies the human-machine teaming context from multiple angles including how to design complex systems to facilitate effective communication between the machine and human, trust by the human in it’s machine counterpart, and the ability of the human-machine team to achieve desired and effective performance.
Ph.D. Applied Experimental/Human Factors Psychology, University of Central Florida, 2010
M.S. Aviation Science, Florida Institute of Technology, 2003
B.S. Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, 2001
Senior Research Associate, Design Interactive, Inc. Orlando, FL (2005-2015): Served as Principal Investigator for the following research and development efforts:
- Studied tactical decision making under stress and individual resilience to stress; developed models, measures and training techniques for improving resilience of decision making skills under stress (ONR Funded)
- Developed and conducted empirical evaluation of a performance assessment and debrief system that integrated eye tracking technology to assess pilot scan strategies and cognitive state for Next Gen tactical aviation training (AFRL funded)
- Evaluated low cost physiological sensors for integration into training tools to assess cognitive and affective states (ARL Funded)
- Developed and evaluated tools for measuring training effectiveness and Return on Training Investment (ONR, AFRL Funded)
- Developed trainee modeling techniques utilizing affective sate, cognitive states and behavioral performance (ONR Funded)
- Designed and empirical evaluated eye tracking measures and virtual training tools to assess and remediate perceptual skills including visual search, detection and recognition (ONR Funded)
Adjunct Professor, FIT, College of Aeronautics (2012-2014)
Courses: Human Computer Interaction
Human Factors Design Specialist, The Boeing Company, Kennedy Space Center, FL (2003- 2005)
- Performed human factors analysis and design of International Space Station (ISS) payloads, support equipment, facilities and work tasks
- Conducted incident investigation and root causes analysis of incidents related to ISS flight hardware, support equipment, facilities
- Performed human factors requirements verification of ISS payloads
- Conducted usability testing in support of NASA's Human Factors Integrated Toolkit
Director, Advancing Technology-interaction & Learning in Aviation Systems (ATLAS) Lab
Chair, Florida Tech Research Council
Co-Chair, Florida Tech Women's Council, Professional Development Subcomittee
Chair, College of Aeronautics Research and Publication Committee
Member, Florida Tech University Teaching Track Promotion Board
Member, College of Aeronautics Graduate Program Committee
Member, College of Aeronautics Doctoral Comprehensive Examination Committee
Member, College of Aeronautics Undergraduate Curriculum Committee
Advisor, Florida Tech Drone Club
Board Member, Florida Tech Catholic Campus Ministry
Introduction to Human Factors
Human Machine Systems
Human Factors in Man Machine Systems
Human Computer Interaction
Interaction Design and Usability
(2021) Human computer interaction on the modern flight deck, International Journal of Human Computer Interaction, 37:7, 585-587,
Carroll, M., Rebensky, S., Wilt, D. F., Pittorie, W., Hunt, L., Chaparro, M., & Sanchez, P. (2021). Integrating uncertified information from the electronic flight bag into the aircraft panel: impacts on pilot response. International Journal of Human Computer Interaction, 37: 7, 630-641. https://doi.org/10.1080/10447318.2020.1854001
Carroll, M., Chaparro, M., Rebensky, S., Carmody, K., Mehta, R., & Pittorie, W., (2021). Adapting to the times: Examining adaptive instructional strategies in preferred and non-preferred class types. Human Computer Interaction International 2021.
Rebensky, S., Carmody, K., Ficke, C., Nguyen, D., Carroll, M., Wildman, J., & Thayer, A. (2021). Whoops! Something went wrong: Errors, trust, and trust repair strategies in human agent teaming. Human Computer Interaction International 2021.
Rebensky, S., Carroll, M., Nakushian, A., Chaparro, M., & Prior, T. (2021). Understanding the last line of defense: Human response to cybersecurity events. Human Computer Interaction International 2021.
Chaparro M., & Carroll M. (2021). Examining vigilance in a simulated unmanned aircraft system (UAS) monitoring task. Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2021).
Carroll, M. & Sanchez, P. (2020). Decision making with conflicting information: Influencing factors and best practice guidelines. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomic Science. doi.org/10.1080/1463922X.2020.1764660
Carroll, M. , Ruble, M. , Dranias, M. , Rebensky, S. , Chaparro, M. , Chiang, J. and Winslow, B. (2020). Automatic detection of learner engagement using machine learning and wearable sensors. Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, 10, 165-178. doi: 10.4236/jbbs.2020.103010.
Carstens, D. S., Pittorie, W. P., Carroll, M. B., & Sanchez, P. L. (2020). Review of aviation safety databases to identify information discrepancies experienced on the flight deck: Implications for NextGen. Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors, 10(2), 94–102. https://doi.org/10.1027/2192-0923/a000192
Chaparro, M.E., Carroll, M. & Malmquist, S. (2020). Personality Trends in the Pilot Population. Collegiate Aviation Review International, 38(2), Retrieved from http://ojs.library.okstate.edu/osu/index.php/CARI/article/view/8025/7423
Rebensky, S., Carroll, M., Bennett, W., & Hu, X. (2020). Collaborative development of a synthetic task environment by academia and military. Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) 2020.
Ebnali, M., Bailey, S., Ciccone, B., Wilson, R., Rebensky, S., Carroll, M., Bennett, W., Hu, X., Reiner, A., Vasquez, H., Wooldridge, A., Lee, L., Verma, P., Jeong, H., Gisick, L., French., Keebler, J. (2020). Virtual reality, augmented reality, and virtual environments: Demonstrations of current technologies and future directions. HFES 2020.
Rebensky, S., Chaparro, M., & Carroll, M. (2020). Optimizing the learning experience: Examining interactions between the individual learner and the learning context. In: Nazir S., Ahram T., Karwowski W. (eds) Advances in Human Factors in Training, Education, and Learning Sciences. AHFE 2020. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 1211. Springer, Cham
Carroll, M., Sanchez, P., Wilt, D., & Rebensky, S. (2020). Utilizing Simulation to Train Decision Making with Conflicting Information. In: Cassenti D., Scataglini S., Rajulu S., Wright J. (eds) Advances in Simulation and Digital Human Modeling. AHFE 2020. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 1206. Springer, Cham.
Chaparro, M., Carroll, M., & Hook, J. (2020). Improving the Usability of a Digital Neurobehavioral Assessment. In: Ahram T., Falcão C. (eds) Advances in Usability, User Experience, Wearable and Assistive Technology. AHFE 2020. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 1217. Springer, Cham.
Carroll, M., Lindsey, S., Chaparro, M., & Winslow, B. (2019). An applied model of learner engagement and strategies for increasing learner engagement in the modern educational environment. Interactive Learning Environments, DOI: 10.1080/10494820.2019.1636083.
Carroll, M., Wilt, D.F., Sanchez, P., & Carstens, D. (2019). Examining pilot decision making in information-rich cockpits. Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium of Aviation Psychology. May 7-10, Dayton, OH, 73-78.
Pittorie, W., Carroll, M., & Carstens, D. (2019). Effects of Verbal vs Graphical Weather Information on a Pilot’s Decision Making during Preflight. Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium of Aviation Psychology. May 7-10, Dayton, OH, 349-354.
Lindsey, S., Ganey, H.C. N., & Carroll, M. (2019). Designing military cockpits to support a broad range of personnel body sizes. Proceedings of The 20th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology.
Pitorrie, W., Lindsey, S., Wilt, D.F., & Carroll, M. (2019). Low-Cost Simulator for Flight Crew Human-Factors Studies. Proceedings of the AIAA Aviation and Aeronautics Forum and Exposition. June 17-21, Dallas, Texas.
Carroll M., Lindsey S., Chaparro M. (2019) Integrating Engagement Inducing Interventions into Traditional, Virtual and Embedded Learning Environments. In: Sottilare R., Schwarz J. (eds) Adaptive Instructional Systems. HCII 2019. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 11597. Springer, Cham. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-22341-0_22
Sanchez P.L., Carroll M.B. (2019) Optimization of User Interfaces in the Digitization of Paper-Based Processes: A Case Study of a Mobile Aviation Application. In: Marcus A., Wang W. (eds) Design, User Experience, and Usability. Practice and Case Studies. HCII 2019. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 11586. Springer, Cham. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-23535-2_40
Lindsey S., Carroll M., Carstens D. (2019) Evaluation of the Impact of Mobile VR Interaction Methods on Performance, Preference, and Enjoyment. In: Stephanidis C. (eds) HCI International 2019 - Posters. HCII 2019. Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol 1033. Springer, Cham. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-23528-4_55
Carroll, M. and Winslow, B. (2017) Examination of the Impact of Condensed Biofeedback Training on Acute Stress Responses. Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, 7, 287-303.
Champney, R. K., Stanney, K. M., Milham, L., and Carroll, M.B. (2017) An examination of virtual environment training fidelity on training effectiveness, International Journal of Learning Technology, 12 (1), pp.42–65.
Lindsey, S., Carstens, D.S. & Carroll, M. (2017). Presence Level of Low Cost Controllers for Mobile Based Virtual Reality Headsets, The Journal of Management & Engineering Integration, 10(1), 59-63.
Padron, C., Champney, R., and Carroll, M. (2016). Quantifying return on simulation-based training investment Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.
Carroll, M., Padron, C., Quinn, S., Surpris, G., Winslow, B., and Viklund, E. (2015). Effectiveness of process level feedback at training tactical decision making. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.
Carroll, M., Surpris, G., Sidor, G., and Bennett, Winston. (2015). Evaluation of an eye tracking-based assessment and debrief tool for training next generation multirole tactical aviation skills. Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, Dayton, OH.
Winslow, B. D., Carroll, M.B., Martin, J.W., Surpris, G. & Chadderdon, G.L. (2015). Identification of resilient individuals and those at risk for performance deficits under stress. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 9(328), pp. 1-10.
Carroll, M., Winslow, B., Padron, C., Surpris, G., Murphy, J., Wong, J. and Squire, P. (2014). Inducing stress in warfighters during simulation-based training. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.
Champney, R.K., Carroll, M., Surpris, G. (2014). A Human Experience Approach to Optimizing Simulator Fidelity. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 58th Annual Meeting. Chicago, Illinois, October 27-31.
Carroll, M. B., Padron, C. K., DeVore, L. A., Winslow, B., Hannigan, F. P., Murphy, J. S., and Squire, P. (2013). Simulation Training Approach for Small Unit Decision-making Under Stress. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.
Carroll, M., Kokini, C. and Moss, J. (2013) ‘Training effectiveness of eye tracking-based feedback at improving visual search skills, International Journal of Learning Technology, 8(2), pp.147–168.
Winslow, B., Carroll, M., Jones, D., Hannigan, F., Hale, K., Stanney, K., & Squire, P. (2013) Quantifying resilience to enhance individualized training. Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. July 20-26, Las Vegas, NV.
Carroll, M., Strally, S., Surpris, G., Archer, M., & Bennett, W. (2013). Enhancing HMD-based Joint Strike Fighter Training through integration of Eye tracking and EEG Technology. Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. July 20-26, Las Vegas, NV.
Stanney, K., Kokini, C., Ramirez-Padron, R., Carroll, M., Fuchs, S., Jones, D., & Hale, K. (2012). Development and Validation of a Real-Time Approach for Modeling Cognitive Readiness. Presented at the International Summit on Human Simulation (ISHS) 2012, St. Pete Beach, FL (May 23-25).
Carroll, M., Hale, K., Stanney, K., Woodman, M., DeVore, L., Squire, P. & Sciarini, L. (2012). Framework for training adaptable and stress-resilient decision making. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.
Kokini, C., Carroll, M., Ramierez-Pardon, R., Wang, X., Hale, K., Sottilare, R. & Goldberg, B. (2012). Quantification of trainee affective and cognitive state in real-time. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.
Carroll, M., Stanney, K., Kokini, C., & Hale, K. (2012). Given the state, what’s the metric? Proceedings of the 4th Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE) International Conference 2012. July 21-25, San Francisco, CA.
Carroll, M., Kokini, C., Champney, R., Fuchs, S., Sottilare, R., & Goldberg, B. (2011). Modeling trainee affective and cognitive state using low cost sensors. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.
Carroll, M., Fuchs, S., Hale, K., Dargue, B. & Buck, B. (2010). Advanced training evaluation system: Leveraging Neuro-physiological measurement to individualize training. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.
Carroll, M., Fuchs, S., Carpenter, A., Hale, K., Abbott, R.G., & Bolton, A. (2010). Development of an Autodiagnostic Adaptive Precision Trainer for Decision Making (ADAPT-DM). International Test and Evaluation Journal, 31(2), 247-263.
Carroll, M., Milham, L.,& Champney, R. (2009). Military observation: Perceptual skills training strategies. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.
Hale, K., Stanney, K., Milham, L., Carroll, M.B. & Jones, D. (2009). Multimodal sensory information requirements for enhancing situation awareness and training effectiveness. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science (TIES): Special Issue: Optimizing Virtual Training Systems.
Champney, R.K., Carroll, M.B., Milham, L., & Hale, K. (2008). Sensory-perceptual objective task (SPOT) taxonomy: A task analysis tool. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Conference 52nd Annual Meeting. New Your, NY.
Carroll, M.B., Champney, R.K., Milham, L.M., Jones, D.L., Chang, D., & Martin, G. (2008). Development of an instructor aid to diagnose performance. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.
Dean, S,. Milham, L., Carroll, M., Schaeffer, R., Alker, M., & Buscemi, T. (2008). Challenges of scenario design in a mixed-reality environment. Proceedings of the Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.
Deaton, J. E., Bell, B., Fowlkes, J., Bowers, C., Jentsch, F., Bell, M. A. (2007). Enhancing team training and performance With automated performance assessment tools. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 17 (4), 317-331.
Schaffer, R., Cohn, J., Hoover, A., Fouad, H., Martin, G., Milham, L., & Carroll, M. (2006). A system for Evaluating Training Transfer between Virtual and Live Urban Environments. Proceedings of the Huntsville Simulation Conference, October 2006, The Society for Modeling and Simulation International.
Champney, R., Milham, L., Carroll, M.B., Stanney, K.M., Cohn, J. (2006). A method to determine optimal simulator training time: Examining performance improvement across the learning curve. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Conference (50th Annual), San Francisco, CA.
Bell, M., Facci, E., Nayeem, R.V. (2005). Cognitive Tunneling, Aircraft-Pilot Coupling Design Issues and Scenario Interpretation Under Stress in Recent Airline Accidents. International Symposium of Aviation Psychology (13th Annual), Oklahoma City, OK.
Facci, E., Bell, M., & Nayeem, R.V. (2005). The Effect of Social Proof on Weather-Related Decision-Making in Aviation. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Conference (49th Annual), Orlando, FL.
Dr. Carroll is currently funded by AFRL to design and empirically evaluate training and assessment tools and techniques to increase learner engagement for UAS training and aviation maintenance training. The modern education environment is tasked with overcoming one of the most pervasive competitors for student attention, the mobile phone. However, mobile technology’s ubiquity has also shifted how students learn and how pedagogy can take place. This research is leveraging the state of the training science, in hand with mobile and advanced sensor technology, to develop tools and techniques to enhance learning experiences across classroom, simulation and live training environments. Efforts include identifying physiological measures which can quantify learner engagement in real time, as well as identifying mobile-technology-based interventions which can increase engagement before, during and after learning activities to improve learning effectiveness. The resulting model, measures and interventions will be empirically evaluated in both UAS and aircraft maintenance training testbeds.
Dr. Carroll, in collaboration with Florida Tech's Cybersecurity department, is also currently funded by ONR to examine the human factors considerations associated with cybersecurity for Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices. The growing number of everyday devices that connect to the internet and are ubiquitous in our personal and professional lives (e.g., Alexa, Ring Doorbell, etc.) pose a growing threat to our cybersecurity. However, the average user knows very little about the type of information collected by these devices, who has access to this data, what is being done with the data and how to control privacy settings. This line of research is examining user perceptions, knoweldge, and experiences in order to define requirements for cybersecurity tools and approaches being developed by Florida Tech's cybersecurity deparment. Further, this work will conduct experimentation to examine user behaviors associated with IoT device privacy settings and response to IoT cybersecurity events.
She was also recently funded by the FAA to examine Human Factors considerations associated with integrating information from multiple sources on the flight deck. As new technology, such as Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) applications, becomes available on the flight deck, pilots have the opportunity to access, and make decisions based on, greater amounts of data from a range of different sources. Through theoretical and empirical study, this effort examined what information is being utilized on the flight deck, how this information is being integrated, and the implications for pilot decision making. The project included review of the relevant literature and safety/accident reports, survey and interview of pilots across general aviation and air transport domains, and conduct of a simulation study with commercial airline pilots to examine their response to different flight deck display configurations.
She also studies the human-machine teaming context from multiple angles including how to design complex systems to facilitate effective communication between the machine and human, trust by the human in it’s machine counterpart, and the ability of the human-machine team to achieve desired and effective performance. Example projects include (a) a collaborative effort with AFRL to develop a virtual environment that allows the study of human-machine teaming elements such as team composition, team dynamics, trust associated with autonomous decision making, trust repair strategies, levels of autonomy, and multi-UAV management, (b) examination of heads-up display design for Part 107 UAS operations, particularly for emergency operations, including impacts to operator situation awareness, workload, and performance, and (c) an examinatin of the human factors considerations for Urban Air Mobility (UAM)/air taxi and air delivery operations.
Research & Project Interests
Cognition and Learning related to:
- Decision Making
- Stress and Resilience
- Human Machine Teaming
- Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)
- Urban Air Mobility (UAM)
- Cognitive and Affective State
- Individual differences
Behavioral and Physiological Assessment
Return on Training Investment
Training Fidelity Analysis