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Writing Style Guide

The following is a description of Florida Tech's in-house writing style for everything except technical papers and reports. This guide is set up alphabetically and contains listings that will allow you to standardize everything you write for the university. Reference materials include The Associated Press Stylebook, Webster's New Dictionary and McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms.

A | BCDE | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V W | X | Y Z

See also three dimensional

a, an
Use the article "a" before consonant sounds (e.g., a catastrophe); use "an" before vowel sounds (e.g., an energy crisis, an honorable man).

a cappella
Two words, double "p" 


  • Abbreviate Co., Corp., Inc. and Ltd. when used after the name of a corporate entity.
  • With dates or numerals, abbreviate a.m., p.m., no. (number), A.D., B.C.
  • In numbered addresses, abbreviate Ave., Blvd., Ste., Rte. and St., but spell out in text.
  • Spell out United States as a noun, but abbreviate U.S. as an adjective.

academic degrees
See also class year

Use lowercase and an apostrophe in bachelor's degree and master's degree. No apostrophe in associate degree. In these constructions, the study discipline is lowercased (i.e., bachelor's degree in mechanical engineering)

Initial cap and no possessive in Bachelor of Science, Master of Science, Associate of Arts. In these constructions, the study discipline is initial cap  (i.e., Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering)

Use periods with no space between for abbreviations: B.S., B.A., M.S., M.A., Ed.S., A.S., A.A., Ph.D., Psy.D.

No periods or space between MBA, MSA, MAT, MPA and DBA.

When used after a name, an academic abbreviation is set off by commas. (John Jones, Ph.D., spoke.)

Do not precede a name with a courtesy title for an academic degree and follow it with the abbreviation for the degree in the same reference (NOT: Dr. John Jones, Ph.D.).

academic departments
It is preferred to lowercase academic departments except for words that are proper nouns or adjectives: the department of chemistry, the department of English, the chemistry department, the English department.

In Florida Tech catalogs and other publications if necessary, the department will be initial cap on first reference only.

academic titles

See titles.

academic years
Lowercase: the freshmen, sophomore, junior and senior classes.

accept, except
"Accept" means to receive. "Except" means to exclude.

Access Florida Tech
Initial cap on Access, lowercase remaining letters.

Not acknowledgement.

Spell as one word, not acousto optic or acousto-optic.

Define all but the most common abbreviations and acronyms on first reference. Do not use periods. Do not add an apostrophe when forming a plural (PCs, VAXes, IBMs).


  • Use the abbreviations Ave., Blvd., Dr., Rd., Ste., Ter., Rte. and St. only with numbered addresses.
  • Spell out when part of a formal street name given without a number or when included in text.
  • Always use figures for an address number.
  • Abbreviate compass points and omit periods with two-letter compass points.
  • Do not abbreviate compass points if an address number is not given (East 42nd Street; 222 E. 42nd St., North Hollywood).
  • Exception: On university forms and stationery, no abbreviations are used. (150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901-6975)

The proper names of Florida Tech's offices are as follows: Office of Undergraduate Admission and Office of Graduate Admissions, which together, comprise the Office of Admission. In copy, when writing about the general process or group of people responsible for recruitment and enrollment at the university, use admissions (lowercase, plural).

Lowercase: the administration, the president's administration.


  • Adverbs ending in "ly" that help form compound modifiers are never followed by hyphens (tightly written story).
  • The adverb "well" is always followed by a hyphen in two-word combinations modifying nouns (well-written story, well-respected professor).
  • If the modifier follows a form of the verb "to be", however, drop the hyphen (the author is well respected).

Not adviser.

affect, effect
Generally, use "affect" as a verb—its meaning is to influence. (The game will affect the standings.) Avoid using "affect" as a noun.

Use "effect" as a noun—it means result. (The effect was overwhelming.) "Effect" as a verb means to cause. (He will effect many changes in the university.)

alumni association
Lowercase generic usage, but capitalize the proper name of the Florida Tech Alumni Association. (You have only one requirement to participate in the many benefits of the alumni association. We welcome you to the Florida Tech Alumni Association.)


alumnus, alumni, alumna, alumnae
Use alumnus (alumni in the plural) when referring to a man who has attended a school. Use alumna (alumnae in the plural) for similar reference to a woman. Use alumni when referring to a group of men and women. Alumnus—one who has attended or graduated from a college or school.

among, between
Generally, "between" introduces two items and "among" introduces more than two. (The bet is between you and me. The tickets were equally divided among students, faculty and staff.)

Use when part of a formal name (U.S. News & World Report) or within lists/tabular formats; in body text, spelling out "and" is preferred.
For example, in body copy: The College of Engineering and Science includes the department of mechanical and civil engineering.
In a listing:
• Department of Mechanical & Civil Engineering
• Department of Aerospace, Physics & Space Sciences
• Department of Biomedical & Chemical Engineering & Sciences

For an event to be labeled annual, it must have taken place for at least two successive years. Avoid the phrase, first annual. Use inaugural instead.


  • Use to indicate omitted letters and figures. (class of '79, the Spirit of '76, the '20s)
  • Use to form plurals of single letters and possessives. (p's and q's, A's and B's)
  • Do NOT use an apostrophe to form plurals of numerals or multiple-letter combinations. (the 1980s, PCs)

as, like
The conjunction "as" is the correct word to introduce clauses. "Like" is used correctly as a preposition to compare nouns and pronouns. (John does his job professionally, as he should. John plays guitar like a pro.)

assistant, associate
Never abbreviate. Capitalize only when part of a formal title before a name. (Assistant Professor John Smith)

Use the singular athletic in general references to the athletic program and as an adjective (athletic achievement, athletic event) unless otherwise denoted in a formal title (e.g., Florida Tech Athletics, director of athletics). Use the plural athletics in general references to multiple sports (We support excellence in academics and athletics.).

One word.

awhile, a while
When following a preposition use "a while"; otherwise spell it as one word.

bachelor of arts, bachelor of science
A bachelor's degree or bachelor's is acceptable. See capitalization.

because, since
"Because" expresses a cause-and-effect relationship. "Since" is used for reference to time. (I finished the assignment because I want a good grade. I have been doing my homework since 3 p.m.)

"Since" is acceptable in a casual sense when the first event in a sequence leads logically to the second, but is not its direct cause. (They went to the game, since they had been given tickets.)

See naming conventions and Florida Tech Limited Space Coast Light Lager

beside, besides
Beside means at the side of. Besides means in addition to. (She is sitting beside the plant. He has other assignments besides his English homework.)

between, among
See among, between.

biannual, biennial
Biannual means twice a year or semiannual. Biennial means every two years.

board of directors, board of trustees
Always lowercase.

building names
See naming conventions.

Burrell College of Osteopathic Medicine
Use Burrell College of Osteopathic Medicine at Florida Tech to refer to our campus-based location. Burrell College is sufficient on second reference. See naming conventions.

See lists (bulleted)

Hyphendated, an exception to the standard usage of the suffix "wide"

can, may
Can—know, understand; to be able to do, make, or accomplish; to have knowledge or skill. May—have power, am able; have the ability to; have permission to.

The following rules apply:

  • Initial cap all official names of College of..., School of..., Office of... (College of Aeronautics, School of Psychology, Office of the President, etc.). Lowercase registrar's office, president's office, board of trustees, board of directors.
  • Initial cap Department of .... only on first reference in Florida Tech catalogs or other publications if necessary, otherwise lowercase.
  • Initial cap Master and Bachelor only when writing about a specific degree (Master of Science in Engineering, Bachelor of Science in English).
  • Lowercase university when it stands alone (Florida Tech is a leader among independent universities. The university spans 130 acres.) Initial cap only when it is used as a part of an official name (Ohio State University).
  • Lowercase prepositions (about, before, between, through) in course titles for catalog.

See photo captions.

Not catalogue (catalog, cataloged, cataloging).

Spell out and lowercase using numerals for amounts less than a dollar (5 cents, 12 cents).

chairman, chairwoman
Use chair. Do not use chairperson.

class year and academic degrees
When identifying individuals by class year and academic degree, punctuate as follows:

John Jones ’98 went to the lecture. 
(Jones received a Florida Tech bachelor's degree in 1998.)

John Jones ’98, ’01, went to the lecture.
(Jones received two Florida Tech bachelor's degrees: one in 1998, one in 2001.)

John Jones ’98, ’01 M.S., went to the lecture.
(Jones received two Florida Tech degrees: a bachelor's in 1998 and a master's in 2001.)

John Jones ’98 M.S. went to the lecture.
(Jones received a Florida Tech master's degree in 1998.)

John Jones ’98 M.S., ’01 Ph.D., went to the lecture. 
(Jones received two Florida Tech degrees: a master's in 1998 and a Ph.D. in 2001.)

John Jones ’98 M.S., Ph.D., went to the lecture. 
(Jones received a Florida Tech master's in 1998 and a Ph.D. elsewhere.)

John Jones ’98, ’01 M.S., Ph.D., went to the lecture. 
(Jones received two Florida Tech degrees (a bachelor's in 1998 and a master's in 2001) and a Ph.D. elsewhere.)

John Jones, Ph.D., went to the lecture. 
(Jones holds a doctorate not earned at Florida Tech.)

One word.

One word.

Does not follow the rule of prefixes. Retain the hyphen when forming nouns, adjectives and verbs that indicate occupation or status (co-worker, co-founder, co-author). No hyphen in other combinations (cooperate, coexist, coed, coordination).

Lowercase when referring to the physical shoreline (Atlantic coast, east coast). Capitalize when referring to region of the United States lying along such shorelines (Atlantic Coast, East Coast). Do not capitalize when referring to smaller regions (the Virginia coast). Capitalize when standing alone only if the reference is to the West Coast. Capitalize Space Coast.

College of Aeronautics

College of Business–use Bisk College of Business in all references

College of Engineering and Science

College of Psychology and Liberal Arts

College Role
Initial caps for the proper noun that denotes student workers on the university’s payroll who are neither Graduate Student Assistants (GSAs) or Federal Work-Study students. (College Role students work in the dining hall. Pete is on College Role.)


  • Use a colon at the end of a sentence to introduce lists, tabulations, texts, etc. (There are three types of exam questions: multiple choice, open-ended and essay.)
  • Capitalize the first word after a colon only if it is a proper noun or the start of a complete sentence. (He promised this: The team will win first place in the competition.)
  • Be especially careful not to use a colon between a verb and its complement or object, between a preposition and its object, or after such as. (NOT: John ate: ham and cheese. The cat is on: the chair. The trip included activities such as: biking, hiking and canoeing.)

Commas are used to:

  • Set off words, phrases or clauses in a series. Omit the serial (or Oxford) comma unless needed for clarity. (The colors on the American flag are red, white and blue. For clarity: The research involves conceptualization and prototyping, deployment and testing, and recovery and analysis.)
  • Set off a prepositional, adverbial or dependent clause that precedes, interrupts or follows an independent (main) clause in a sentence. (When she discovered the answer, she reported her findings to the committee. The report, after being read aloud, was put up for consideration.)
  • Set off two independent (main) clauses in a single sentence joined by a conjunction (a compound sentence) and for short independent clauses not joined by a conjunction. (She knew little about him, and he volunteered nothing. I came, I saw, I conquered.)
  • Set off contrasting and opposing expressions within a sentence. (He changed his style, not his ethics. The cost is $50, not $56.)
  • Set off adjectives in a series that are equal in rank where the comma effectively replaces the word "and" (thoughtful, considerate manner; harsh, cold wind).
  • Set off quotations. Note: If a quotation is used as the subject of a sentence or if it is not being presented as actual dialogue, a comma is not used. ("The computer is down" was the reply we all feared. The fact that he said he was "leaving this instant" doesn't mean he actually left.)
  • Separate a question from the rest of a sentence. (It's a nice day, isn't it?)
  • Indicate the omission of a word or words in a sentence. (Common stocks are preferred by some investors; bonds, by others.)
  • Avoid ambiguity and to emphasize a particular phrase. (To John, Jane was someone special. The more bells and whistles a computer has, the higher the price.)
  • Set off geographical names, dates and addresses from the rest of a sentence. (Melbourne, Florida, is on the East Coast. He was wounded Sunday, June 12, 1940, two days before he was to come home.) Note: When just the month and year are given, the comma is omitted. (She received her master's degree in May 1990.)
  • Set off nonessential clauses with a comma following a conjunction in a compound sentence. (He likes his job at the university, but in a few months he will be graduating.)
  • Set off ages and hometowns from a name. (John Doe, 41, attended the event. Jane Doe, of Melbourne, Florida, also attended.)

  • Set off academic credentials from a name. (Jane Doe, Ph.D., is the professor.)

communications, graphics, electronics, series, headquarters
These words are both singular and plural in construction. They do not violate the rule of plural adjectives when modifying a plural noun. The nouns that these words are modifying determine the verb tense.

compared to, compared with
Use "compared to" when the intent is to assert, without the need for elaboration, that two or more items are similar. (Her work was compared to that of Susan B. Anthony's campaign for women's suffrage.)

Use "compared with" when juxtaposing two or more items to illustrate similarities and/or differences. (His time was 2:11:10, compared with 2:14 for his closest competitor.)

compass points
See addresses.

complement, compliment
Complement is a noun and verb denoting completeness or the process of supplementing something. (The department has a complement of 26 professors.)

Compliment is a noun or verb that denotes praise or the expression of courtesy. (The vice president complimented the entire teaching staff.)

compose, comprise
Compose means to create or put together. (He composed a song.)

Comprise means to contain, to include all, or embrace. (The university is comprised of five basic units.)

composition titles

  • Capitalize the principal words, including prepositions and conjunctions of four or more letters: "The Star Spangled Banner"
  • Capitalize an article (the, a, an) or a word of fewer than four letters if it is the first or last word in a title: "Of Mice and Men"
  • Italicize titles of newspapers, magazines, journals and books (excluding reference works and the Bible). Underline if you can't set in italics.
  • Put quotation marks around the titles of movies, TV programs, plays, epic poems, operas, albums, exhibit titles, works of art, articles, chapters, lectures, speeches and presentations.

compound words
See hyphenation.

It is OK to begin a sentence with a conjunction occasionally, but do not set the conjunction off with a comma. (And the ARL building contains more research laboratories.)

course names
Lowercase reference to subject matter, unless a proper noun (mathematics, science, oceanography, English)

Capitalize the formal name of an academic course (Introduction to Engineering, Calculus 1)

One word.

courtesy titles
In general, (outside of standard correspondence) do NOT use the courtesy titles Miss, Mr., Mrs., Ms. on first and last names of people in regular copy.

credit hours
Always use figures. Hyphenate as a compound modifier. (The course is 3 credit hours. The 3-credit-hour course is offered this fall.)

No periods with most credentials (CPA, APR, CFRE, FAICP, etc.). List credentials only on first reference. See academic degrees.

One word as a noun and adjective.

dates (also see months)

  • When a phrase lists only a month and a year, do not separate the year with a comma (August 1990).
  • In tabular form, use three-letter abbreviations without periods (Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec).
  • Always use Arabic figures, without st, nd, rd, or th. (The party will take place Jan. 21. NOT: The party will take place January 21st.)
  • It is unnecessary to indicate the year if the event occurs within the same year as the publication.
  • Do not use "on" with dates when its absence would not lead to confusion. (The program ends Dec. 15. NOT: The program ends on December 15.)
  • Spell out numerical designations first through ninth and use numerals with letter suffixes for 10th and above. (the first semester, the 10th anniversary)

days of the week
Capitalize. Do not abbreviate, except in tabular format (Sun, Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri, Sat).

Capitalize when used as a formal title (Dean John Jones). Lowercase in other uses (John Jones, dean of the college; the dean).

dean's list
Lowercase in all uses. (He is on the dean's list.)

Use Arabic figures to indicate decades of history. Use an apostrophe to indicate numerals that are left out. Show plural by adding the letter "s." (The 1980s, the '90s, the Gay '90s, the 1920s, the mid-1950s.)

See academic degrees. Also see temperature.

departments, offices
See academic departments.
Use department when referring to university academic units (Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Department of Mathematics and Systems Engineering) and for athletics (Athletics Department). Use office when referring to administrative units (Office of Marketing and Communications, Office of International Student and Scholar Services, Office of Financial Aid)

One word.

Use figures and spell out inches, feet, yards, etc. to indicate depth, height, width, length and weight. Hyphenate adjectival forms before nouns. (He is 6 feet, 7 inches tall, the 6-foot-7-inch man. The recipe requires a 9- by 12-inch pan or a 9-by-12 pan. The rug is 9 feet by 12 feet, the 9-by-12 rug.)

directions and regions
Lowercase north, south, northeast, northern, etc. when they indicate compass directions; capitalize when these words designate regions. (He sat on the east side of the stadium. They came here from the Northeast. The storm system that developed in the Midwest is spreading eastward.)

Always use figures. (He ran 4 miles.)

In text, the preferred form for referencing an individual who holds a doctoral degree is to set off the academic credentials with commas. (John Jones, Ph.D., received a research grant.) On second reference, use only the last name. In most cases, the salutation Dr., or Drs. in the plural, is avoided. Do not use both Dr. and Ph.D. together in the same reference. (NOT: Dr. John Jones, Ph.D.)

Use residence hall instead.

drop out (v.), dropout (n.)
(He will drop out of the English class. He will become a second-semester dropout.)

due to, because of
"Due to" is an adjectival prepositional phrase, meaning it modifies a noun. It is commonly preceded by a form of the verb "to be" (be, is, are, was, were, etc.). Because it follows a "be" verb, it is considered a subject complement: It modifies the subject of the sentence. (The team's loss was due to an incorrect answer. My financial success is due to wise investment decisions.)

"Because of" is an adverbial prepositional phrase, meaning it modifies a verb. It usually answers the question, "Why?" (The team lost because of an incorrect answer. I am financially successful because of wise investment decisions.)

each other, one another
Two people look at each other. More than two look at one another.

Generally lowercase, but capitalize when used as the proper name of the planet. The one exception being earth station, which is to remain lowercase.

education center
Capitalize the proper noun 'Florida Tech Education Centers,' but lowercase the general term 'education center.' (Tuition rates are posted for Florida Tech Education Centers. Contact your local education center for more information. Tuition rates at Florida Tech education center locations are listed. The education center in Orlando is called the Orlando Education Center.)

effect, affect
See affect, effect.

Means for example (i.e., that is).

either ... or, neither ... nor
The nouns that follow these words do not constitute a compound subject; they are alternate subjects and require a verb that agrees with the nearest subject. (Either the dress is red or it is not. Neither he nor they are going.)

electro optic
NOT electro optic.

Use three dots (no spaces between them, but a space on each side) to signify that something has been left out of a direct quote or that the writer is leaping from one topic to another.

Lowercase, unless as the first word of a sentence or listing, then capitalize.

em dash, en dash

  • Do not leave a space before or after an em dash or en dash.
  • An em dash is used to denote an abrupt change in thought in a sentence or an emphatic pause (We will fly to Paris in June—if I get a raise).
  • An em dash can also be used when a phrase that otherwise would be set off by commas contains a series of words that must be separated by commas (He listed the qualities—intelligence, humor, conservatism, independence—that he liked in an executive).
  • An en dash can be used when separating years (1990–95).
  • Use an en dash between capitalized names and to indicate linkages, such as boundaries, treaties or oppositions. (Chicago–Memphis train, the Dempsey–Tunney fight.)

emeritus, emeriti, emerita, emitae
Denotes individuals who have retired but retain their rank or title. When used, place emeritus after the title, in keeping with the general practice of academic institutions. (The luncheon recognized professor emeritus John Johnson. John Johnson, professor emeritus of history, serves on the committee.) When referring to two or more individuals, use professors emeriti.

ensure, insure
Ensure means to guarantee. Use insure when referring to insurance.

Use to mean a right to do or have something. Do not use to mean titled.

essential clauses, nonessential clauses
The essential clause cannot be eliminated without changing the meaning of the sentence. The essential clause must not be set off from the rest of the sentence by commas. "That" is the preferred pronoun to introduce clauses that refer to an inanimate object.

The nonessential clause, however, can be eliminated without changing the meaning of the sentence. The nonessential clause must be set off from the rest of the sentence by commas. "Which" is the only acceptable pronoun to introduce a nonessential clause that refers to an inanimate object or an animal without a name.

et al
No periods.

Literal translation is "and other things." Use "and others," "and so forth" or "and so on" in copy. Don't use any of these, however, in a series that begins with "for example." In this case, etc. is appropriate. Lists introduced with "such as" or "including" don't need etc. because it's assumed there are other items besides those listed.

every one, everyone
Two words when it means each individual item. One word when used as a pronoun meaning all persons. Everyone takes singular verbs and pronouns. (Every one on the team was a winner. Everyone wants his life to be happy.)

See accept, except.

When used alone, treat as a singular noun. (Our faculty is the best. The faculty is attending the conference.) When referring to the people who make up the faculty, use "faculty members."

farther, further
Farther refers to physical distance. Further refers to an extension of time or degree.

Fast Track
Two words (initial cap on each) for the proper name of the Florida Tech accelerated master's degree program 

Lowercase (e.g., a university fellow, a research fellow, a Snowdon fellow).

Capitalize as part of a named fellowship (e.g., Edward W. Snowdon and Lee Hill Snowdon Fellowship, but a Snowdon fellow).

fewer, less
"Fewer" is used with individuals or individual items; "less" with quantity or bulk. (Fewer users on the network require less cable.)

fiber optics (n.), fiber-optic (compound modifier)

One word.

Add "s" for plurals; not apostrophe followed by "s," which is possessive (1990s, 1990's lifestyle).

financial aid

Fitforum, Facforum
Use initial caps in the proper names of the university's email discussion lists.

flier, flyer
Flyer is the preferred term for a person flying in an aircraft, and for handbills: He used his frequent flyer miles; they put up flyers announcing the show. Use flier in the phrase take a flier, meaning to take a big risk.

Florida Institute of Technology
The official name of the university. The article "The" does not precede the university name. Use "Florida Tech" in most references.

Florida Tech
Preferred usage to refer to the university. Do not use FIT. 

Florida Tech Limited Space Coast Light Lager
Capitalize the proper name of Florida Tech’s beer collaboration with Intracoastal Brewing. On second reference, the informal descriptions, “Florida Tech beer” or “Florida Tech’s beer,” are acceptable.

NOT forwards.

Spell out amounts less than one in stories, using hyphens between words (two-thirds, four-fifths, etc.).

fuel cell
Two words.

full time (n.), full-time (compound modifier)
(She is a full-time engineering student. He also goes to class full time.)

fundraising, fundraiser
(Fundraising is difficult. They planned a fundraising event. A fundraiser was hired.  This event is a fundraiser for the radio station.)

good, well
Good is an adjective that means something is as it should be or is better than average. Generally not used as an adverb.

Well, when used as an adjective, means suitable, proper, healthy. When used as an adverb, well means in a satisfactory manner or skillfully. (The boat runs well.)

Always lowercase, unless part of an agency or committee name; never abbreviate.

grant-in-aid, grants-in-aid

Not grey for color.

group study
Two words.

Hyphenate as a compound modifier. (Each class offers hands-on experience.)

health care 
Two words, but the degree name is healthcare management.

heavenly bodies
Capitalize the proper names of planets, stars, constellations, etc. (Mars, Arcturus, the Big Dipper, Aries). See earth. Lowercase red planet when referring to Mars. 

For comets, capitalize only the proper noun element of the name: Halley's comet.

Lowercase sun and moon.

Capitalize nouns and adjectives derived from the proper names of planets: Martian, Venusian, but lowercase adjectives derived from other heavenly bodies: solar, lunar.

Hyphenate as a compound modifier.

Hyphenate as a compound modifier. (This high-level decision will affect us all.)

Hyphenate as a compound modifier, except in the proper name High Tech Corridor.

Lowercase when used generically, but capitalized when referring to Florida Tech’s specific annual event. (Mark your calendars for Homecoming 2020. This year’s homecoming activities include a parade, a sporting event and a gala. The first homecoming was held in 1972. Historically, Florida Tech celebrated Homecoming in February.)

Capitalize the proper names of homecoming events: Homecoming 5K, Homecoming Awards Gala, Homecoming Fest

One word.

Capitalize when part of a proper noun (Florida Tech Honors College, Honors Research, Honors Options). Lowercase when used in a general sense (honors credits, honors students, an honors program). She is a member of the Honors College. He graduated with honors. She earned 3 honors credits taking Honors Research this fall.

honorary degrees
All references to honorary degrees should specify that the degree was honorary.

Avoid starting a sentence with "however" when the meaning is nevertheless. "However" is used correctly at the beginning of a sentence when it means "in whatever way" or "to whatever extent." (However you advise him, he will do as he thinks best.)

hydro, hyper
The rules of prefixes apply, but in general, no hyphen.

The following definitions apply:

  • Use between some prefixes and root words (co-author, pre-exist, noncontroversial). Consult prefix references in AP Stylebook for guidelines.
  • Use in forming compound nouns, especially those containing prepositions (sister-in-law, attorney-at-law, good-for-nothing).
  • Use with compound modifiers—two or more words that express a single concept that precede a noun. The purpose for hyphenating compound modifiers is to guide readers easily through your wording and help them distinguish the modifiers from the nouns at a glance.
    • Use a hyphen to link all words in a compound modifier, except the adverb "very" and all adverbs that end in "ly" (first-quarter report, very blue sky, full-time job, off-campus site).
    • Also use when a compound modifier is formed using a number, a single letter and a noun (D-shaped connector, 3.5-inch column, 24-point type).
    • When a compound modifier that would normally be hyphenated before a noun occurs after a form of the verb "to be," the hyphen usually must be retained to avoid confusion. (The professor is well-known. The class is second-rate.)
  • Use when writing compound numbers between 21 and 99 when the first number ends in "ty" (thirty-four, one hundred and fifty-eight).
  • In layout, do not leave a hyphenated word from one page to another page or from one column to another column on the same page.
  • Do not hyphenate words with fewer than six letters (e.g., often); one syllable words (e.g., drowned, shipped, named, through); contractions (e.g., doesn't); abbreviations (e.g., Ph.D., FDA, B.C.)
  • Use a minimum of three characters before or after a hyphenated line break.
  • Use hyphens, rather than slashes (/) when forming nontraditional compound words. (Andy Seminick-Les Hall Field, student-athletes)

Means "that is" and is normally followed by a comma (e.g., for example).

See incorporated

in, into
In indicates location. Into indicates motion. (The cord is in the back of the machine. The cord is then plugged into the back of the machine.)

include, comprise
Use "include" to introduce a series when the items that follow are only part of the total. Use "comprise" when the full list of individual elements is given.

Abbreviate and capitalize as Inc. when used as a part of a corporate name. Do not set off with commas (Time Warner Inc.), even if a comma is used in a company's formal name. 

One word.

Hyphenated as a compound modifier. (We have an in-house marketing office.)

Use periods and no space.

in order to
Rarely necessary, use "to" instead.

Capitalize when part of a proper name (Institute for Culture, Collaboration and Management). Lowercase when used alone in a subsequent reference. (The institute held a conference.)

See ensure, insure.

inter, intra
The rules of prefixes apply, but in general, no hyphen.


Use italics to emphasize individual words in text and to identify books, newspapers and magazines (excluding reference works and the Bible). TV shows, plays, movies, song titles, paintings, poems and other composition titles are set off in quotes; not italics. If you can't set words in italics, underline those words instead.

Not judgment.

junior, senior
Abbreviate as Jr. and Sr. only with full names of persons or animals. Do not precede with a comma.

Hyphenate as a noun. Abbreviate kilowatt, kW. (Abbreviation is preferred by most technical sources.)

Hyphenate as a noun.

One word. Lowercase as a standard adjective. Capitalize the Florida Tech program, Lifelong Scholar Society.

Should not be substituted for "as" (or such as) when comparing two or more nouns. (We use programs like Word and PowerPoint means you used programs that were similar to Word and PowerPoint; you didn't use Word or PowerPoint. We used programs such as Word and PowerPoint is correct if you actually used those programs.)

lists (bulleted)
The following guidelines apply:

  • Use a space between the bullet and the first word of each item in the list. 
  • Capitalize the first word following each bullet. 
  • Use parallel construction for each item in a list.
  • Use appropriate punctuation at the end of complete sentences. Punctuation is not necessary at the end of phrases or single words.

lists (numbered)
This type of list should be introduced by a main clause, followed by a colon. The first word of each item should be capitalized, and each item should have appropriate ending punctuation.

For example: Connecting your computer monitor is easy:

  1. Plug one end of the cable into the computer.
  2. Plug the other end of the cable into the monitor.
  3. Plug the power cord for the monitor into the back of the monitor.
  4. Plug the other end of the power cord into a grounded outlet.

lists (in sentences)
Simple lists of items in sentence form should be separated by commas (The color choices were red, white and green) with no serial comma, e.g., before the "and." However, when the comma is necessary for clarity or to avoid confusion, then use it. (The color choices were blue and black, purple, yellow, and green and orange.)

Complex lists of items in sentence form, i.e., lists that contain multiple words with conjunctions, begin with a colon and items are separated by semicolons. (The color choices are: green with aqua undertones; blue and black; crimson edging on gold; and purple.)

long distance, long-distance
Always hyphenate in reference to telephone calls. In other uses, hyphenate only when used as a compound modifier.

make up (v.), makeup (n., adj.)
(He will make up the test at a later date. This is a makeup test for the class.)

maiden names
Include the maiden name of married alumnae in parenthesis on first reference. For example, Jane (Doe) Smith '12

Use work-hours, and hyphenate as a noun.

Use employees, workers, work force if referring to a group of people needed to accomplish tasks. Use effort or force if referring to physical power in the abstract.

may, can
See can, may.

One word.

metric abbreviations
The following rules should apply.

  • Butt two or less lowercase letters against number (35mm, 1cm).
  • Butt single uppercase letters against numbers (512K).
  • Place one space between two (or more) uppercase letters, or one (or more) uppercase letter(s) and one lowercase letter, and numbers (6 MHz, 50 bps, 15 Hz). 

No hyphen with this prefix unless a capitalized word follows (mid-American, mid-'80s, midsemester, midterm, midrange).

The rules in prefixes apply, but in general, no hyphen (miniseries, minibus).


  • Capitalize the names of months in all uses.
  • When a month is used with a specific date, abbreviate Jan., Feb., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov. and Dec. (Jan. 15, 2018). Spell out March, April, May, June, July (July 4, 2018).
  • Spell out when using alone, with a year alone or with a specific date when used as a headline.
  • When a phrase lists only a month and year, do not separate the year with commas (January 1990).
  • In tabular material, use these three-letter forms without a period: Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec

Lowecase. See heavenly bodies.

Generally, should not be used to mean "almost" in written English to modify the adjectives all, every and any; the pronouns all, everyone, everything, everybody, anyone, anything and anybody; and the adverbs everywhere, anywhere and always. Most as an adverb means to the greatest or highest degree, to a very great degree and almost.

The rules in prefixes apply, but in general, no hyphen (multiengine, multimillion, multidisciplinary, multimedia).

naming conventions
Refer to the list below for proper names of university buildings and campus landmarks:

Proper NameShorthand
Allen S. Henry Building Henry Building
Andy Seminick-Les Hall Baseball Field Seminick-Hall Field
Anthony J. Catanese Varsity Training Center Catanese Varsity Training Center (VTC)

Burrell College of Osteopathic Medicine at Florida Tech
(if referring to our campus-based location)


Burrell College of Osteopathic Medicine
(if referring to the overall organization)

Burrell College
Center for Aeronautics and Innovation CAI Building
Charles and Ruth Clemente Center for Sports and Recreation Clemente Center
Crawford Green Crawford Green (always singular)
Edwin A. Link Building Link Building
Emil Buehler Center for Aviation Training and Research Buehler Center
FIT Aviation No periods in FIT
Frederick C. Crawford Building Crawford Building, NOT Crawford Science Tower
Florida Tech Limited Space Coast Light Lager Florida Tech beer
F.W. Olin Engineering Complex Olin Engineering Complex
F.W. Olin Life Sciences Building Olin Life Sciences Building or Olin Life Sciences
F.W. Olin Physical Sciences Center Olin Physical Sciences Center or Olin Physical Sciences
George M. Skurla Hall Skurla Hall
Gleason Performing Arts Center Gleason Performing Arts Center, NOT Gleason Auditorium
Homer R. Denius Student Center Denius Student Center, NOT SUB
Jerome P. Keuper Administration Building Keuper Building
John and Martha Hartley Room Hartley Room
John E. Miller Office Building Miller Building
John H. Evans Library Evans Library
Joy and Gordon Patterson Botanical Garden Patterson Botanical Garden (always singular), NOT "The Jungle"
Nancy Bottge Varsity Softball Field Bottge Field
Nathan M. Bisk College of Business Bisk College of Business
Northrop Grumman Engineering and Science Student Design Showcase Use full proper name on first reference, subsequent references may use 'showcase' or 'student design showcase' (lowercase)
O.A. Holzer Student Health Center Holzer Health Center
Panther Aquatic Center Panther Aquatic Center (not Aquatics)
Ray A. Work Jr. Building Work Building
Rick Stottler Soccer Field Stottler Field
The Scott Center for Autism Treatment The Scott Center


The rules of prefixes apply, but in general no hyphen (nanoscale, nanomechanical, nanosecond)

neither ... nor
See either ... or.

The rules of prefixes apply, but in general no hyphen when forming a compound that does not have a special meaning and can be understood if "not" is used before the base word (nonlinear, nonabrasive). Use a hyphen, however, before proper nouns or in awkward combinations, such as non-nuclear. Follow Webster's Tenth New Collegiate Dictionary.

One word.

noon, midnight
Use without numeral 12 before. To avoid confusion, do NOT use 12 a.m. or 12 p.m. in reference to either noon or midnight.


  • Always spell out numbers at the beginning of a sentence unless the number is a year. (1976 was a good year. Seven students attended the event.)
  • Spell out one through nine unless used in reference to age, addresses, clock time (3:10, but three o'clock), credit hours, dates, dimensions, distances, measurements, money, percentages, speeds, weights or in tabular material.
  • Use figures for 10 and above. (They had 10 dogs and four cats.)
  • When large numbers must be spelled out, use a hyphen to connect a word ending in "ty" to another word; do NOT use commas between other separate words that are part of one number. (twenty, twenty-one, one hundred forty-five)

In general, spell out one through nine and first through ninth, use numerals for 10 and 10th and above. For more details, see the AP Stylebook.

off-campus, on-campus
Hyphenate when used as an adjective (off-campus housing, on-campus activities), but not when used as an adverb (he lives off campus, she lives on campus).

offline, online
One word.

OK, OK'd, OK'ing, OKs
Do NOT use okay.

on board, on-board
Two words as an adverb; hyphenate as a compound modifier. Use "aboard" when referring to getting on or onto a ship, plane, boat, etc. Never onboard.

One word.

Hyphenate as a compound modifier and adverb. (On-site campus activities will be taking place.)

on, upon
"On" shows position or state of rest; "upon" stresses direction or movement.

Lowercase when used generically, but capitalize when referring to Florida Tech’s specific biannual events. (The orientation team coordinated the schedule of events for Orientation 2020. Each semester, Florida Tech hosts Orientation to introduce new students to the university. Typical orientation activities include games, seminars and workshops.)

organizations and institutions
Capitalize the full names of organizations and institutions (American Medical Association; The Boeing Company; Harvard University; Sigma Delta Chi).

Use lowercase for internal elements of an organization when they have names that are widely used generic terms (the board of directors of General Motors, the board of trustees of Columbia University).

Panther, panther
Lowercase when used generically in reference to the animal, but capitalize when referring to Florida Tech students, alumni and other members of the university community. (The big cat exhibit includes lions and panthers. Florida Tech’s aerospace engineering program makes Panthers competitive candidates in the job market.).

Panther Pass
Two words.

Panther Pride
Initial caps in all uses to describe school spirit.

One word.

If a complete sentence is contained within parentheses, the first letter in that sentence is capitalized and the punctuation is placed within the closing parenthesis. If an incomplete sentence is contained within parentheses, the first letter is lowercase and the punctuation is placed outside the closing parenthesis.

part time (n.), part-time (compound modifier)
(She works part time. She is a part-time student.)

Not an acronym. The programming language is named after a mathematician, Blaise Pascal.

Use the % sign when paired with a numeral, with no space, in most cases. (Nearly 35% of incoming students are from Florida; the acceptance rate is 85%; she won 57% of the vote.) Use figures: 1%, 4 percentage points. 
For a range, 12% to 15%, 12–15% and between 12% and 15% are all acceptable.

playback (n.), play back (v.)
(The video playback will show the error. The music will be played back.) 

photo captions

Always identify individuals in a photo starting from the left. Spell out left, right and center. Avoid using abbreviations (L, R, C). Only use a period if the caption is a complete sentence. 

Acceptable caption formats include:

  • From left: John Jones, Sue Johns, John Doe
  • ROTC cadets pictured from left, front row: John Jones, Sue Johns, Jane Doe; from left, back row: John Doe, Ben Smith, Pat Smith
  • Members of the flight team are, from left, John Jones, Sue Johns and John Doe.
  • John Jones (left) and John Doe enjoyed the event.

plural adjectives
The words communications, graphics, electronics, headquarters and various others are to be considered both plural and singular in construction. Therefore, phrases such as communications systems, graphics artists and electronics firms do not violate the plural adjective rule of grammar—using plural adjectives to modify plural nouns.

possessive nouns
Possessive nouns ending in "s" take only a final apostrophe, not an apostrophe followed by a second "s." (students' thoughts—meaning the thoughts of multiple students)

Follow Webster's Tenth New Collegiate Dictionary. Hyphenate if not listed but, (postbaccalaureate, post-bachelor, postcollegiate, postdate, postdoctoral, postgraduate).

One word.

One word as a compound modifier.


One word.

principal, principle
Principal is a noun and adjective meaning someone or something first in rank, authority, importance or degree. Principle is a noun that means a fundamental truth, law, doctrine or motivating force.

Never abbreviate. Lowercase, unless part of a formal, conferred title. (Harris Professor of Assured Information)

Not programable.

Not questionnaire.

quotation marks
Periods and commas always go within quotation marks. Semicolons, colons and unusual punctuation go outside quotation marks when they do not apply to the quote. Use single marks in headlines.

The correct form is $12 million to $14 million; not $12 to $14 million. Ranges should be specified using the preposition "to," not a dash. In technical text, ranges are specified with an en dash unless the range starts with "from," then use the preposition "to."

The rules of prefixes apply. See AP Stylebook. Note: For many words, the sense is the governing factor: recover (regain); re-cover (cover again); reform (improve); re-form (form again).

real time (n.), real-time (compound modifier)
(Testing will be done in real time. The entire campus will be used as a real-time aerial sensing test bed.)

Hyphenate as a compound modifier.

recur, recurred, recurring
NOT reoccur.

residence halls
NOT dorms or dormitories.

With accent marks.

right-hand side
Avoid using hand in such references. Right side is sufficient.

Acceptable on first reference for Reserve Officer Training Corps. No periods.

No periods.

Capitalize when part of a proper name (School of Psychology). Lowercase when used alone in a subsequent reference. (The School of Psychology offers bachelor's degrees in several areas. The school also offers graduate degrees.)

Lowercased acronym for self-contained underwater breathing apparatus.

Lowercase spring, summer, fall, winter and derivatives such as springtime, unless part of a formal name.

Always hyphenate as a prefix.

The rules of prefixes apply, but in general, no hyphen (semifinal, semi-invalid).

setup (n.), set up (v.)
(She will set up for the meeting. The sting was a setup.)

shall, will
Use "shall" to express determination. (We shall overcome. You and he shall stay.)

Either "shall" or "will" can be used in first-person constructions that do not emphasize determination. (We shall hold a meeting. We will hold a meeting.)

For second- and third-person construction, use "will" unless determination is stressed. (You will like it. She will not be pleased.)

should, would
Use "should" to express an obligation. Use "would" to express a customary action and to construct a conditional past tense. (We should help the needy. In the summer, we would spend hours at the beach.)

shut off (v.), shut-off (n.)
(She shut off the light. He used the shut-off switch.)

sign up (v.), sign-up (n.)
(Please sign up for the class. The sign-up table is in the lobby. Sign-up is at the Clemente Center.)

space shuttle
Two words, lowercase, but capitalize as a proper name. (Space Shuttle Endeavor)

One word, lowercased, to describe the site of rocket launches on the Space Coast. Capitalize as the proper name of the Florida Tech Education Center.

One word.

One word.

start up (v.), start-up (n.)
(He started up the engine. The start-up company needed funding.)

Lowercase in all "state of" construction. (The state of Florida)

state abbreviations
The names of the 50 U.S. states should be spelled out when used in the body of a story, whether standing alone or in conjunction with a city, town, village or military base.

Use text abbreviations in photo captions or bulleted lists (Melbourne, Fla.).
Use postal abbreviations when writing a complete address (150 W. University Blvd., Melbourne, FL 32901).

Alabama Ala. AL
Alaska Alaska AK
Arizona Ariz. AZ
Arkansas Ark. AR
California Calif. CA
Colorado Colo. CO
Connecticut Conn CT
Delaware Del. DE
Dist.of Col. D.C. DC
Florida Fla. FL
Georgia Ga. GA
Guam Gu. GU
Hawaii Hawaii HI
Idaho Idaho ID
Illinois Ill. IL
Indiana Ind. IN
Iowa Iowa IA
Kansas Kan. KS
Kentucky Ky. KY
Louisiana La. LA
Maine Maine ME
Maryland Md. MD
Massachusetts Mass. MA
Michigan Mich. MI
Minnesota Minn. MN
Mississippi Miss. MS
Missouri Mo. MO
Montana Mont. MT
Nebraska Neb. NE
Nevada Nev. NV
New Hampshire N.H. NH
New Jersey N.J. NJ
New Mexico N.M. NM
New York N.Y. NY
North Carolina N.C. NC
North Dakota N.D. ND
Ohio Ohio OH
Oklahoma Okla. OK
Oregon Ore. OR
Pennsylvania Pa. PA
Puerto Rico P.R. PR
Rhode Island R.I. RI
South Carolina S.C. SC
South Dakota S.D. SD
Tennessee Tenn. TN
Texas Texas TX
Utah Utah UT
Vermont Vt. VT
Virginia Va. VA
Virgin Islands V.I. VI
Washington Wash. WA
West Virginia W.Va. WV
Wisconsin Wis. WI
Wyoming Wyo. WY

Acceptable on first reference for science, technology, engineering and math, but spell out the full phrase shortly thereafter.

student-faculty ratio
Not faculty-student ratio.

The rules of prefixes apply, but in general, no hyphen.

Lowercase. See heavenly bodies.

telephone numbers
Use hyphens: 321-674-8000 and 800-888-4348. If extension numbers are given, use 768-8000, ext. 6159. Do not use a "1" before the area code.

Indicate the temperature scale, Fahrenheit or Celsius, of the measurement when discussing temperature. There is no space between the degree symbol and the scale abbreviation. (i.e., 72°F)

that, which, who, whom (pronouns)
Use "who" and "whom" when referring to people and to animals with names. (John Jones is the man who helped me.)

Use "that" and "which" in referring to inanimate objects and to animals without names. (The dog that bit you was his.)

their, there, they're
"Their" is a possessive pronoun. "There" is an adverb indicating direction. It is also used with a pronoun for impersonal constructions in which the subject follows the verb. (There is no food on the table.) "They're" is a contraction for they are. (This is their room. Put the book over there. They're here to learn about computers.)

three dimensional, 3D
Hyphenate as a compound modifier. 3D is acceptable. Never three-D.


  • Use figures, except for noon and midnight, and a space between the time and a.m. or p.m. (7 a.m., 7:30 p.m.).
  • Use noon (not 12 p.m.) and midnight (not 12 a.m.) for clarity.
  • Use a colon to separate hours from minutes. (11:30 a.m., noon, NOT: 12 noon)
  • Separate spans of time with an en dash, no space between the times, or with the prepositions "from" and "to" (8–10 a.m., 8 a.m.–5 p.m., from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m.) Do not combine use of an en dash with use of a preposition. (NOT: from 8 a.m.–4 p.m.).
  • Omit minute placeholders for times on the hour. (i.e., 7 a.m., not 7:00 a.m.).
  • Avoid redundancies such as 10 a.m. this morning. Instead, use 10 a.m. today.
  • If a time span is during the same part of the day, use a.m. or p.m. only once. (i.e., 8–10 a.m., not 8 a.m.–10 a.m. or 4–6 p.m., not 4 p.m.–6 p.m.) 

One word as a modifier.



  • Lowercase job titles when they stand alone. (The director of research compliance approved the project.)
  • Capitalize formal titles, such as president or dean, when they are used immediately before a name. (President Dwayne McCay, Dean Beth Sinclair)
  • Lowercase occupational titles such as professor, associate professor, assistant professor, lecturer, instructor, adjunct, director, program chair, department head, etc. whether they appear before or after a name. (The course is taught by professor Bob Davis. Questions can be directed to Jessica Jones, engineering department head.)
  • Lengthy titles should follow, rather than precede, a name. (Sue Thompson, associate professor of biomedical and chemical engineering, leads the research effort.)
  • Conferred titles, such as professorships or endowed chairs, are proper nouns and should be capitalized. (Jane Smith, Harris Distinguished Professor of Assured Information, is the keynote speaker.)

See also composition titles, courtesy titles.

NOT towards.

travel, traveled, traveling, traveler

trolley, trolleys

Do not capitalize even if used before a name.

The rules of prefixes apply, but in general, no hyphen (ultraviolet, ultrasonic).

One word in all uses.

United States, U.S.
Always spell out as a noun. Can be abbreviated as an adjective.

Lowercase when it stands alone. Capitalize only when it is used as a part of an official name. Include the article "the" in running text before university names that include "university of." (She is a professor at the University of Florida. She is a professor at Florida State University.) 

Hyphendated, an exception to the standard usage of the suffix "wide"

upgrade, upgradable
NOT upgradeable.

upon, on
"Upon" stresses direction or movement, "on" shows position or state of rest.

NOT upwards.

No periods.

NOT useable.

This word, meaning use, is rarely needed. "Use" is usually sufficient.

Abbreviate as vs. in all uses.

vessel names
Proper names of ships and other vessels, such as spacecraft and aircraft, are capitalized and italicized. Prefixes, such as R/V or USS, are not set in italics. (Space Shuttle Endeavor, R/V Delphinus)

Veterans Affairs
No apostrophe. VA can be used on second reference.

One word.

The web is lowercase as a short form of World Wide Web, as are other compound terms like webpage, webfeed, website, webcam, webcast, webmaster.

One word, lowercase. 

When writing a web address, do not include http:// if the URL contains www. If the URL does not include www, the http:// may be necessary to avoid confusion. Use your own best judgment, but be sure the URL can be perceived as a URL and not as plain text. In general, include http:// when the URL is within a larger copy block. If it stands alone, e.g., in a footer or short phrase, http:// may be omitted.

A forward slash (/) does not need to follow the address. Include a period if the URL falls at the end of a sentence.

See web entry.

Hyphenate as a part of a compound modifier (She is a well-dressed student).



Lowercase "we" in the name weVENTURE in all instances, even at the start of a sentence. "VENTURE" is all caps.

which, that
"Which" introduces a nonessential clause and must be preceded by a comma (a nonessential clause can be eliminated without altering the basic meaning of a sentence).

"That" introduces an essential clause (cannot be eliminated without changing the meaning of a sentence; can stand alone and be a sentence) and is not preceded by a comma. (This is the best brochure that I have ever written. The new brochure is an exceptional piece, which will, no doubt, be a winner with the students.)

Hyphenate as a compound modifier. (white-water rafting)

who, that
Use the pronoun "who" for references to human beings and animals with names. Use the pronoun "that" to refer to inanimate objects.

Unless noted elsewhere in the Writing Style Guide, no hyphen needed in most usages of the suffix "wide." Some examples are nationwide, worldwide, statewide, areawide and so on. Exceptions include campus-wide, university-wide.

In layout, a widow is defined as a single word of seven or fewer letters or the last syllable of a multisyllable word that appears at the end of a graph or column of typeset text or the beginning of a column. All widows should be corrected, if possible.

Two words.


One word as an adjective.

X-ray (noun, verb and adjective)

Hyphenate as a compound modifier.

One word.


Use figures and months without commas: August 1990. Use an "s" without an apostrophe to indicate spans of decades or centuries: the 1990s. Use an apostrophe for class years: She belonged to the Class of '72.

ZIP code
Use all-caps ZIP for Zone Improvement Program, but always lowercase the word "code."

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